by Emanuel Tobier (Manhattan Institute, May 2001)

How much money would it take to turn around New York City's failing public schools? Would unlimited resources even make a dent in the achievement gap? In a May 2001 Manhattan Institute Civic Bulletin, Emanuel Tobier presents seven facts that ought to be considered before placing more cash into the hands of the Board of Ed. Among his troubling findings: 1) even as the average amount spent per pupil has risen by 48 percent since 1970, only 50 percent of the City's students graduate high school within four years; 2) only 55 percent of current spending goes toward instruction; and 3) New York State (and City) spending already approaches the highest in the land. Tobier doesn't deny that more money might help New York City's struggling schools, but he sensibly concludes that how the dollars are spent is far more consequential than how many of them are spent. Check out the bulletin online at

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